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Primary and secondary treatment

Primary and secondary treatment

MagTreat® is a natural reagent for wastewater treatment. It can be effectively used in primary and secondary treatment processes. Acting like a soft alkali, MagTreat is safer and more effective than any of existing industrial alkalis. It can be applied on each stage of sewages purification, improving the perfomance of a whole process.

Acid sewages neutralization

Due to lower molecular weight magnesium hydroxide provides more hydroxyl ions than hydrated lime and more than monovalent caustic soda per kg. One mt of NaOH is equivalented to 0.73 mt Mg(OH)2 and one mt of Ca(OH)2 is equivalented to 0.79 mt Mg(OH)2.It is vividly illustrated by dissociation reactions*:

2NaOH ó 2Na+ + 2OH-

2(40)g/moló 2(23)g/mol + 2(17)g/mol

Ca(OH)2 ó CaOH+ + OH- ó Ca2+ + 2OH-

(74)g/moló(57)g/mol + (17)g/mol ó (40)g/mol + 2(17)g/mol

Mg(OH)2 ó MgOH+ + OH- ó Mg2+ + 2OH-

(58)g/moló (41)g/mol + (17)g/mol ó (23)g/mol + 2(17)g/mol

*On dry solids basis

Unlike many commonly used chemicals as hydrated lime or caustic soda, MagTreat® gradually neutralizes acids reaching the maximum pH level of 9-9,5 forming safe buffer solutions. Also, there is no exceeding calorification during neutralization process. MagTreat is effective in neutralization of both inorganic and organic acids:

  • Sulfuric acid
  • Hydrochloric acid
  • Phosphoric acid
  • Nitric acid
  • Acetic acid

MagTreat allows to prevent scaling of the equipment in reaction with sulphuric acid and phosphoric acid. It forms products that can be easily removed out of the system - magnesium sulphate and struvite (MgNH4PO6H2O).Treated water is enriched with magnesium ions and have pH level supportable for the next stage of wastewater treatment.

Efficacy of the products AquaMag

Heavy metals reduction

MagTreat helps to reduce concentration of ions to the values of the MPC, while treatment of wastewaters with high content of heavy metals.

When added to a system MagTreat acts like an alkali and a sorbent at the same time. It precipitates heavy metal ions as hydroxides which form colloid suspensions. It effectively removes such dangerous elements as copper, lead, cadmium, zinc, chromium, etc.

Mg(OH)2↔ Mg2++ 2OH-Me2++ 2OH-= Me(OH)2↓where Me2+— ions Fe2+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Zn2+, etc.

At the same time MagTreat absorbs heavy metals, thanks to its high specific surface area about 11 m2/g. The absorption capacity of natural magnesium hydroxide is comparable to the absorption capacity of synthetic ion-exchange materials.

Biological wastewater treatment

MagTreat can be used for secondary water treatment – nitrification/denitrification process. It helps to maintain the optimal pH level for bacteria reproduction. Biological wastewater treatment could be performed either as a joint process of aerobic-anaerobic treatment by activated sludge, or as a two separate processes: nitrification in aeration basin and denitrification inside a methane tank.

Nitrification improvement mechanism:

Nitrification is biological oxidation of ammonia via nitrite to nitrate:NH3NO2NO3

The process occurs in two steps. Both include activity of different bacteria that are extremely sensitive to pH level. Below you can see a graph illustrating dependence of maximum nitrification rate on pH of the system.

Nitrification rate.jpg

Percent of maximum rate of nitrification at constant temperature (20 C°) versus pH

Source: EPA-625/4-73-004a, Revised Nitrification and Denitrification Facilities Wastewater Treatment, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Technology Transfer Seminar.

MagTreatbuffers at a pH of approx. 9, which is in most cases the optimal level for bacteria reproduction.Thanks to the unique properties it is impossible to overshoot the pH, whereas NaOH can easily reach a pH of 13 and Ca(OH)2 a pH 12. At these pH levels the biomass will sustain severe damage.

Further you can see an illustrated cost-reduction efficiency of MagTreat in comparison with other alkalis:


1 IBC of MagTreat 3 IBCof Ca(OH)2

60% suspension 30% suspension


1 IBC of MagTreat 1.6 IBC of Na(OH)

60% suspension 50% solution


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